Sri Lanka


The city, now a World Heritage site, was the centre of Theravada Buddhism for many centuries. The city lies 205 km (127 mi) north of the current capital of Colombo in the North Central Province, on the banks of the historic Malvathu River. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and one of the eight World Heritage Sites of Sri Lanka.

Anuradhapura, is the first ancient capital of Sri Lanka which lasted for the longest period as the capital in the country. It is important to locals for religion, history, and the culture and world-famous for its well-preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. The Civilization which was built upon this city was one of the greatest civilizations of Asia and in the world. The city now a UNESCO heritage site, lies 205 km (127 mi) north of the current capital Colombo in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka, on the banks of the historic Malwathu Oya. Founded in the 4th century BC, it was the capital of the Anuradhapura Kingdom until the beginning of the 11th century CE. During this period it remained one of the most stable and durable centers of political power and urban life in South Asia. It was also a wealthy city which created a unique culture and a great civilization. Today this ancient city of Sri Lanka, which is sacred to the Buddhist world, which its surrounding monasteries covers an area of over 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) and is one of the world's major archaeological sites


Bentota began life as a settlement built around a small Portuguese fort on the estuary of the Bentota River. In the 19th century, the British converted the fort into a rest house, where civil servants would come to relax in the grounds under the shade of the tamarind trees. Still welcoming those who crave a break, it’s now one of Sri Lanka’s most popular beach resorts. Bentota is spread along Sri Lanka’s west coast, with a cluster of hotels to the north that gradually thin out as you travel south. The lengthy stretches of golden sand are shaded by corkscrew palms, the occasional granite outcrop, and little else.While this is a popular beach resort, there are no beach bars or restaurants lining the sand, just hotels, villas and luxury resorts tucked behind the palms at discrete distances from each other.

Take a long walk along the beach and you might notice that many of the buildings share similar aesthetics. They’re the work of Geoffrey Bawa, a Sri Lankan architect who created tropical modernism, a blend of modern minimalism and traditional design. The 17-room Club Villa is one of Bawa’s works, designed to feel like a home away from home. Bawa sought to reduce the barrier between the indoors and outdoors, which you’ll see here in a series of alfresco terraces, balconies and courtyards mediating between the rooms and gardens.

Lunuganga Estate, Bawa’s country retreat, is a short drive inland. The house is a series of modernist cubes, arranged within a series of courtyards and ambitiously landscaped gardens (he cut the top off a nearby hill to give himself a better view). The gardens are open to visitors by appointment. You can also visit the home of his brother, Bevis Bawa, who, in his retirement from civil servitude, also had a stab at design. Featuring playful artworks and a statue that’s a little too pleased to see you, his gardens take a more fantastical, relaxed approach.

The hotels along Bentota’s beach range from the small, relaxed Club Villa to expansive resorts offering water sports and activities galore. The selection of exclusive luxury options includes Saman Villas, a collection of two-storey villas, each with its own plunge pool and butler. While the beaches themselves are relatively quiet, there’s a collection of restaurants, cafés and shops inland. You can eat Sri Lankan curries in candlelit courtyards, at Indian restaurants set in old shophouses and homemade ice cream served in coffee shops.

Much of Sri Lanka’s toddy is tapped here, and brewed into arrack, a fiery spirit. Toddy is the extracted flower sap of palm trees, and you’ll often see the head of someone collecting it poking up from the crown of a tree.



If you’d like to get to know contemporary Sri Lanka, you’ll find it best displayed here, in this phoenix-like capital that’s rising from the civil war of the 1990s. Colombo is now a dynamic city, where British and Dutch colonial architecture brushes shoulders with cutting-edge skyscrapers, stylish seafood restaurants and busy temples — that are all very much Sri Lankan. Although it only became Sri Lanka’s capital in 1815, with the arrival of the British, Colombo has long been an important seaport for Muslim traders, and Portuguese and Dutch settlers. To get a firm grounding of its history, you can take a walking tour with a local historian, who’ll focus on the area known as Fort. While there was once a Portuguese-built fortress here, it was demolished in 1870, and Fort is now simply the name for Colombo’s central district.

The British-built administrational section of Fort was cordoned off during the civil war, but it’s now open again and restoration work is in progress. You can wander past the honeyed neoclassical Old Parliament Building, the white columns of the General Post Office and the Cargills & Millers Building, originally a British department store that wouldn’t look amiss on a London high street. From here, you could head to the Dutch area, which focuses around the Dutch Hospital. This 17th-century complex is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the city and has been carefully restored. Its colonnaded arcades host shops selling artisan crafts — thickly woven, vibrantly dyed textiles are a specialty — and cafés serving Ceylon tea alongside cocktails.

You’ll also find the Ministry of Crab, as well as a range of other fashionable restaurants, in the Dutch Hospital. This temple to crustaceans serves crab in ten sizes, as well as a supporting cast of prawn, lobster and tuna dishes.There’s a competitive edge to restauranteering in Colombo, from hotels perfecting rooftop fine dining to exclusive 12-seater sushi restaurants (we recommend Nihonbashi) popping up across the city. For something more low-key, sample a samosa or some deep-fried crab from one of the street-food stalls that congregate on Galle Face Green. This long strip of lawn that runs alongside the coast has been a gathering point in the city since Victorian times.

It’s also worth making time to visit Pettah Market, the country’s largest marketplace. You’re almost guaranteed to lose your bearings. Each street is arranged into specialties, from jewellery to potatoes, and there’s a constant hum of sales patter. Look out for wood apples — a soft, off-white fruit shaped like a ball. They might smell like blue cheese, but they go into producing a popular sweet-and-sour juice. From Pettah, you’re within walking distance of the city’s ever-developing port, which is on course to becoming one of the largest in Asia. Take a wander around the district (which developers promise will become the mini-Dubai of Asia) and you’ll see skyscrapers alongside 200-year-old warehouses and busy shipping-container loading bays. To the south of the city are five bright-green (well, depending on the season) stadia of grass. The neatest is R Premadasa International Cricket Stadium, known as SSC Cricket Ground

You’ll see a lot of temples across Sri Lanka, so it can be tempting to skip Colombo’s offering. But, the capital’s spiritual retreats are arguably the country’s most unusual. Gangaramaya Temple is an unassuming dot on the map, a short walk from Galle Face Green. Walk inside, though, and you’ll find huge piles of glasses, gold ingots, toy elephants (plus a life-size model), baskets of food and gold-leafed books. Reverent of one of the oldest temples in Colombo, many Buddhists regularly donate their valuables there (seeing it as an act to reduce personal greed) — there are even a few cars. Nearby is its sister temple, Seema Malakaya, a photogenic collection of Buddhas arranged on a promontory on Bere Lake. Visit at night to see it illuminating the surrounding water, as local residents visit after work.



The earliest cave temples at Dambulla are thought to date back to the first century BC but successive kings added to them over the years to form the present complex of five separate cave temples. Images of Buddha Today they contain around 150 images of Buddha including a colossal 52 metre long reclining Buddha in the largest cave. As well as being a historic monument, the temples are also a pilgrimage site: the experience is even more atmospheric as you mingle with devotees placing symbolic offerings in the laps of the Buddhas, the scent of incense hanging in the air. The caves at Dambulla are located within The Cultural Triangle and can be easily visited either from Sigiriya or en route from the hill country.

Dambulla Cave temple is a world heritage site. This site is situated 148 km (92 mi) east of Colombo and 72 km (45 mi) north of Kandy. It is the largest and best-preserved cave temple complex in Sri Lanka. The rock towers 160 m (525 ft) over the surrounding plains. There are more than 80 documented caves in the surrounding. Major attractions are spread over 5 caves, which contain statues and paintings. This paintings and statues are related to Buddha and his life. There are total of 153 Buddha statues, 3 statues of Sri Lankan kings and 4 statues of gods and goddesses. The later 4 include two statues of Hindu gods, god Vishnu and god Ganesh. The murals, covers an area of 2,100 square meters. Depictions in the walls of the caves include Buddha's temptation by Mara (demon) and Buddha's first sermon.


Galle - a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In the southwest corner of Sri Lanka, Galle is a pretty colonial fortress with Dutch, French and British influences. Jutting out from the mainland, it’s surrounded by the Indian Ocean on three sides. The old quarter, or Fort as it’s called, is small enough to walk around on foot and, with a wide selection of boutique hotels and restaurants, it serves as a good base for exploring the surrounding region. Stat in Galle for a few nights to give you time to visit local markets in New Galle, a sprawling area that surrounds the original fortress. From December through to early April you could also embark on a whale watching trip from Mirissa, which is 90 minutes away by car.

It’s difficult to know who to credit with the architectural achievement of Galle. The Portuguese built this fortified coastal city in the 16th century. Then the Dutch spent 100 years enlarging the ramparts before the British added towers, a lighthouse and more gates. Perhaps the hats really come off to its current custodians, Sri Lanka’s Department of Archaeology, who’ve sensitively restored Galle while encouraging a community of artisanal boutiques, cafés and B&Bs. The modern city has now burst its walls, spreading along the coast and into the hills inland.

Sitting on a peninsula on Sri Lanka’s southwest coast, Galle Fort is surrounded by water on three sides. You can circumnavigate it by walking along its stone-walled battlements, stopping to wander through gateways and bastions. The fort is often lauded as the best example of the interaction between European styles and Asian traditions. You can delve into this further in the Marine Archaeological Museum, which occupies an old spice warehouse.Along the northern battlements is one of the later additions to the fort: a clock tower built to commemorate the jubilee of Queen Victoria. From here, you have views over the Galle International Stadium, a cricket ground where you can sometimes see the team training. On the southern edge is Galle Lighthouse, which overlooks a frangipani-fringed beach.

A number of Dutch churches occupy space inside the fort walls, including the always freshly painted Dutch Reformed Church, whose floor is paved with gravestones from Dutch cemeteries. Many buildings have been converted into boutiques selling locally made crafts. Others are now cafés — look out for Dairy King and its homemade ice cream. Many stay open into the evening, when you can stroll along warmly lit streets perusing the tea merchants, galleries of vintage posters, and stores filled with handmade wooden sculptures.

Outside the fortress, Galle draws visitors with stretches of rose-gold sand, framed with tangles of mangrove and frangipani trees. Unawatuna Beach to the south is the best known, but head north and you’ll find quieter stretches of coast and a selection of locally run beach hotels.

You need about a day to take in Galle, but it’s also a good base for exploring the surrounding area. About half-an-hour’s drive away is Yatagala Temple, a mural-covered rock shrine set back from the road among the paddy fields. You’ll often have the cave and its golden reclining Buddha to yourself.



Prior to the Sri Lankan Civil War, it was Sri Lanka's second most populous city after Colombo. The 1980s insurgent uprising led to extensive damage, expulsion of part of the population, and military occupation. Since the end of civil war in 2009, refugees and internally displaced people began returning to homes, while government and private sector reconstruction started taking place.[2] Historically, Jaffna has been a contested city. It was made into a colonial port town during the Portuguese occupation of the Jaffna peninsula in 1619 who lost it to the Dutch, only to lose it to the British in 1796. During the civil war, the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) occupied Jaffna in 1986. The Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) briefly occupied the city in 1987. The LTTE again occupied the city from 1989 until 1995, when the Sri Lankan Army regained control. The majority of the city's population are Sri Lankan Tamils with a significant number of Sri Lankan Moors, Indian Tamils and other ethnic groups present in the city prior to the civil war. Most Sri Lankan Tamils are Hindus followed by Christians, Muslims and a small Buddhist minority. The city is home to number of educational institutions established during the colonial and post-colonial period. It also has number of commercial institutions, minor industrial units, banks, hotels and other government institutions. It is home to many historical sites such as the popular Jaffna library that was burnt down and rebuilt and the Jaffna fort which was rebuilt during the Dutch colonial period.

Most historic buildings such as Temples, Saraswathy Mahal library and palaces in the royal city of Nallur and the rest of Jaffna peninsula were destroyed by the Portuguese colonials. Materials from destroyed buildings were used in the construction of the Jaffna fort and other fortifications. Cankilian Thopu or entrance of the palace of Cankili I and Mantri Manai or minister's palace are few of the pre-colonial buildings still standing in the royal quarters of Nallur. Within the Jaffna city proper, the Dutch fort is an imposing structure followed by many Dutch era homes, churches and civil buildings most of which were damaged during the civil war. There are number of British colonial era building such as the Indo-Sarasenic style clock tower and the Public library that are notable. Almost all Hindu temples in Jaffna including the socially important Nallur Kandaswamy temple were reconstructed during the Dutch and British period.



It’s widely believed that one of Buddha’s teeth is kept, concealed in a casket, within the Temple of the Tooth, and twice a day is briefly paraded around the complex. Buddhists gather for this significant event, and there’s likely to be a lot of people in the temple during this time. If you visit the temple in the evening you can watch a traditional dance performance first. This starts at about 5pm and is actually a collection of different dance routines in one performance. You’ll be handed a sheet of paper which explains each dance and what it signifies. Some traditional dance performances in Sri Lanka can feel less than authentic, but here they are genuine

Wood storks rest beside this Sri Lankan city’s tranquil lake and gold roof temple, set beneath undulating tea plantations. In between undulating tea plantations and emerald rainforest, the city of Kandy lies within the Mahaweli River’s protective embrace. The former capital of Sri Lanka, Kandy’s famed for sheltering a tooth of the Buddha — the country’s most holy Buddhist relic — along with botanical gardens, temples and an artificial lake. Kandy has a thriving food scene, with a growth in the number of restaurants starting to provide authentic Kandyan home cooking. Away from the throbbing motorbikes and noisy market vendors, the Kandy Lake is a calm oasis fronting the Temple of the Tooth. From the lakeside you can look out for Indian cormorant, stork-billed kingfisher and the alligator-like Asian water monitor lizard.

Sitting on a plateau beneath swirling tea plantations, Kandy’s tranquil lake and elegant botanical gardens provide stark contrast to its lively streets. Once the stronghold of Sinhala kings, Kandy’s main attraction is the gilded-roofed Temple of the Tooth, which shelters a relic believed to be Buddha’s tooth. At the temple, puja (prayers) occur daily, where the tooth is taken out of its chamber in its golden casket for devote Buddhists to worship. The room is filled with flowers, praying Buddhists, onlookers and the sound of rhythmic drummers. Outside of puja, you can quietly admire the temple’s contrasting simple wooden structures, flamboyant Buddha statues and lavish gold roofs. Kandy Lake Kandy Lake was created as an additional feature for the Temple of the Tooth. You can take a break from the bustle of the city by walking the path encircling the lake. Nuga and palm trees shade the path, and you’ll notice white egret cranes, wood storks and pelicans around the water’s edge.

Originally created solely for Kandyan royalty, the botanical gardens are now open for everyone to enjoy. Set 6 km (4 miles) outside the city, the gardens are a peaceful haven and home to over 4,000 plant species including the coconut-like cannonball fruit tree, towering Burma bamboo and orchids. The botanical gardens are the largest in Sri Lanka and are abundant with the smell of spices such as nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom. The main lawn is ruled by a giant Javan fig tree. At over 100 years old its thick trunk and spidery canopy of branches stretch over 2,420 sq m (26,048 sq ft). As you wander around, you’ll be joined by curious monkeys and can spot snoozing fruit bats hanging in the trees.

Back in the city, you can delve into the Kandyan food scene on a guided walking food tour. You’ll be taken on a culinary journey through Kandy’s markets, sampling tropical fruit and milky ‘workers tea’, before being greeted with plates of freshly fried Kandyan snacks such as wade at a woman’s cooperative. Your day culminates in visiting a café for curd and treacle (a typical Sri Lankan desert). Alternatively, on an evening food walk your guide will introduce you to egg hoppers (rice-flour pancakes with an egg in the bottom) and kottu (a dish made of shredded roti, stir-fried vegetables and leftover meat cooked in egg).



Negombo is known for its long sandy beaches and centuries old fishing industry. Negombo has a large bilingual (Sinhala/Tamil) population with a clear Roman Catholic majority.


Nuwara Eliya

At 2,000 metres above sea level, the 19th century colonial hill station of Nuwara Eliya was a favourite retreat of the British, who were drawn by the climate, and to this day it retains a colonial ambiance with its golf course, gentlemen’s clubs and mock-Tudor buildings.

Sri Lanka’s landscape is a lot greener than many imagine, and nowhere is this more prevalent than in the Tea Country in the central highlands. While you can travel from Kandy to Nuwara Eliya in the Tea Country by car, a slower and more scenic option is to take the train. During your journey you’ll travel through banana and eucalyptus trees, past tumbling waterfalls and finally through the rolling tea plantations, where tea pluckers still pick the leaves by hand. You can visit a tea factory during your stay, where you’ll learn about the tea-making process, see the machinery in action and sample some tea for yourself. Tea making is a subtle art, and it was interesting to learn about the different types of tea and how many different grades can be made from the same bush. This is dependent on when the leaves are picked and how they are then processed — this is a true, colonial experience.



The second Buddhist capital after Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa is more accessible and better preserved than its predecessor. Ancient sites The numerous sites are grouped in clusters outside the modern town and enable the visitor to easily imagine life in the ancient city. Rock carvings The palaces, royal buildings and Buddhist shrines boast some captivating examples of master craftsmanship, the most notable being the Gal Vihara’s beautiful images of the reclining and meditating Buddha carved into the rock face. The level of detail in the carvings and their well preserved condition makes it hard to believe they are almost a thousand years old.



Sigiriya Rock is located in Sri Lanka’s Cultural Triangle, which is often the start point for trips around the country. An area rich in history and home to four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Sri Lanka’s Cultural Triangle is an extraordinary place to explore. Visit the ruins of the once powerful cities of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa where the remains of elaborate monasteries and palaces can be seen. Explore the religious monuments at Mihintale, where Buddhism was first introduced to the island, and climb the spectacular Sigiriya Rock Fortress. In nearby Minneriya or Kaudulla National Parks elephant, deer and wildcat can be found. Standing alone in a flat region of rice paddies and man-made lakes, created to help with the irrigation of the land, it takes 700 steps to climb to the fortress ruins at the top of Sigiriya Rock. You can stop halfway to admire the beautiful women depicted in the vivid frescoes painted on the rock face.

When the usurper King Kasyapa built his base here in the 5th century he didn’t build merely a fortress but a fabulous palace on top of the rock, complete with pleasure gardens below. Wonderful view One thing that remains unchanged over the centuries is the magnificent view from the top, over miles of jungle and rolling hills. Today only ruins of the palace remain, but features such as the massive Lion’s Paws and radiant frescoes of beautiful damsels give visitors a glimpse of its former splendour.


Sinhara Forest Reserve

A forest reserve and a biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka. It is of international significance and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site by UNESCO. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Sinharaja is the country's last viable area of primary tropical rainforest. More than 60% of the trees are endemic and many of them are considered rare. 50% of Sri Lankan's endemics species of animals (especially butterfly, amphibians, birds, snakes and fish species). It is home to 95% endemic birds. The hilly virgin rainforest, part of the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests ecoregion, was saved from the worst of commercial logging by its inaccessibility, and was designated a World Biosphere Reserve in 1978 and a World Heritage Site in 1988. Because of the dense vegetation, wildlife is not as easily seen as at dry-zone national parks such as Yala. There are about 3 elephants, and 15 or so[vague] leopards. The most common larger mammal is the endemic purple-faced langur. Birds tend to move in mixed feeding flocks, invariably led by the fearless Sri Lanka Crested Drongo and the noisy orange-billed babbler. Of Sri Lanka's 26 endemic birds, the 20 rainforest species all occur here, including the elusive red-faced malkoha, green-billed coucal and Sri Lanka blue magpie. Reptiles include the endemic green pit viper and hump-nosed vipers, and there are a large variety of amphibians, especially tree frogs. Invertebrates include the endemic common birdwing butterfly and leeches.



Trincomalee is recommended beach on the east coast of Sri Lanka. Set around a natural harbour, there’s plenty to see here aside from the golden sands, including a Dutch fort and age-old temples. If you visit during August you may also see whales and dolphins off the coast. Trincomalee (also referred to as Trinco) has always been an important eastern town throughout Sri Lanka's history. In recent years it has been a place of much civil unrest, but is now open again to visitors. The town is best known for its harbour which is the biggest natural harbour in the world, which have seen the ships of the Portuguese, Dutch and British, among others, over the centuries.


Udawalawe Nat Park

The Elephant Transit Home in Uda Walawe National Park helps young elephants that have been orphaned, before integrating them back into the wild. This is the only elephant experience recommended in Sri Lanka. Supported by the Born Free Foundation, the elephants are free to roam around and have very little human interaction. However, you can walk around on partially camouflaged wooden platforms to watch these majestic animals in their natural habitat. Twice a day you can watch the elephants being fed and there is a museum which explains about the work they do here. Uda Walawe is also the habitat for a number of bird species indigenous to Sri Lanka, and some leopard. Allow just one night here to allow you time to visit the elephants as well as embark on a couple of game drives.

For an island roughly the size of Portugal, Sri Lanka boasts an impressive 22 national parks. Uda Walawe is to the south of Horton Plains, whose great rock escarpment provides a backdrop to the park’s open plains, scrubland and wetlands. With its large, central reservoir, the park has become known for its herd of about 250 elephants, which are relatively easy to spot as they graze on the surrounding grasslands. The park was established in 1972, after the damming of the Walawe River to create a reservoir. The surrounding marsh and wetlands attract endemic and migratory birds, from wading ibis and egrets to dainty green bee-eaters and an occasional kingfisher, which attracts your eye in a neon flash. You’ll often see serpent eagles hovering overhead, swooping into the tall grass to catch their quarry. Game drives into the park usually run in the early morning or afternoon, avoiding the midday heat when the animals (and most humans here) are resting.

The park’s resident elephants are a common sight and you might even see a calf guarded by its mother or a solitary bull elephant. The muscular shoulders of wild buffalo poke up from the water as they bathe, and sambar and axis deer often dart across the scrublands. The Sri Lankan leopard and sloth bear live in the park’s dense teak forest, making them a rarity to spot. But, your 4x4 driver might be able to show you gashes in the trees where they sharpen their claws or climb.Around the forest edges, you might see wild boars or packs of golden jackal as well as the country’s national bird, the Sri Lankan junglefowl (which looks like a particularly bright chicken).


Yala National Park

This forest-filled park, with open pockets of land and watering holes, has the highest density of leopards in Asia, so the chance of spotting this notoriously elusive animal is good. There isn’t any restriction on the number of vehicles allowed in Yala at any one time, and this can mean you’re likely to be joined by other jeeps, especially if there has been a leopard sighting. To get away from the crowds, you can go on longer game drives further into the park, but these are very much about seeing what you see rather than specifically tracking certain species. Elephants, crocodiles, wild hogs, monkeys, deer and sloth bear are also present in the park. The sloth is even harder to spot than the leopard. It’s no longer possible to stay in the park, but you do have the choice between hotels nearby, or luxury tents in the area that borders the park.

Originally a hunting ground for the British during colonial rule, Yala National Park's grassy plains and tangled forests are now a playground for a healthy leopard population. Yala hugs the island’s southeast coast creating a semi-arid environment, and its lagoons and beaches host a diverse range of birdlife. A protected area, Yala covers more than 900 sq km (378 sq miles), making it one of Sri Lanka's biggest national parks. Yala is the busiest and most popular park in Sri Lanka, and with good reason. It boasts the highest density of leopards in Asia as well as sloth bears, crocodiles, deer and a plethora of birdlife.

The most renowned resident of Yala National Park, the Sri Lankan leopard differs to its African relations with a darker, russet coat and close-set spots. A density of natural prey and successful conservation efforts have led to Yala supporting one of the highest concentrations of leopards in the world. The leopards aren't necessarily easy to spot. Take a 4x4 safari into the park — dawn or dusk works best due to cooler temperatures and increased animal activity — with an experienced guide and have your binoculars to hand. Safaris tend to last three to four hours, heading through the park's meandering 4x4 tracks and focusing on the rocky outcrops where the leopards like to laze.

To protect the wildlife, camping in the park isn't possible, but there's a variety of camps nestled in the park's buffer zone. You can opt for a back-to-basics stay in a mobile camp (they move each season to protect the environment). They maintain a jungle camp feel with canvas tents, no electricity and sundowners served by the fire. Alternatively, the permanent camps are more akin to a boutique hotel and boast facilities such as a private pool.